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Fakultät für Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

Lehrstuhl für Mikrobiologie – Professor Dr. Dirk Schüler

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Pfeiffer, D., M. Toro-Nahuelpan, R.P. Awal, F.D. Müller, M. Bramkamp, J.M. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2020. A bacterial cytolinker couples positioning of magnetic organelles to cell shape control. PNAS, accepted.

Riese, C.N., R. Uebe, S. Rosenfeldt, A.S. Schenk, V. Jérôme, R. Freitag and D. Schüler. 2020. An automated oxystat fermentation regime for microoxic cultivation of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Microbial Cell Factories, doi.org/10.1186/s12934-020-01469-z.

Silva, K.T.*, M. Schüler*, F. Mickoleit, T. Zwiener, F.D. Müller, R.P. Awal, A. Weig, A. Brachmann, R. Uebe, and D. Schüler. 2020. Genome-wide identification of essential and auxiliary gene sets for magnetosome biosynthesis in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. mSystems, doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00565-20. *These authors contributed equally to this work.

Pfeiffer, D., J. Herz, J. Schmiedel, F. Popp, and D. Schüler. 2020. Spatio-temporal organization of chemotaxis pathways in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, doi: 10.1128/AEM.02229-20.

Schüler, D. and F.D. Müller. 2020. Biosynthesis and intracellular organization of magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria. In: D. Jendrossek (ed.) Microbiology monographs: Bacterial organelles and organelle-like inclusions, Springer, Heidelberg, in press.

Uebe, R. and D. Schüler. 2020. The Formation of Iron Biominerals in Magnetotactic Bacteria, In: Metals, Microbes, and Minerals - The Biogeochemical Side of Life" (MILS-21) by M. E. Sosa Torres, P. M.H. Kroneck / A. Sigel, E. Freisinger and R. K. O. Sigel (eds.), De Gruyter, Berlin, in press.

Müller, F., D. Schüler, and D. Pfeiffer. 2020. A compass to boost navigation - Cell biology of bacterial magnetotaxis, Journal of Bacteriology, doi: 10.1128/JB.00398-20.

Rosenfeldt, S.#, F. Mickoleit#, C. Jörke, J.H. Clement, S. Markert, V. Jérôme, St. Schwarzinger, R. Freitag, D. Schüler, R. Uebe*, and A. S. Schenk*. 2020. Towards standardized purification of bacterial magnetic nanoparticles for future in vivo applications, Acta Biomaterialia, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.07.042 *corresponding authors, #these authors contributed equally to this work.

Schüler, D., C. L. Monteil and Chr. Lefevre. 2020. Microbe of the Month: Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Trends in Microbiology, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2020.06.001.

Dziuba, M. V., T. Zwiener, R. Uebe and D. Schüler. 2020. Single-step transfer of biosynthetic operons endows a non-magnetotactic Magnetospirillum strain from wetland with magnetosome biosynthesis. Environmental Microbiology, https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14950.

Mickoleit, F., C. Lanzloth and D. Schüler. 2020. A Versatile Toolkit for Controllable and Highly Selective Multifunctionalization of Bacterial Magnetic Nanoparticles. Small, doi: 10.1002/smll.201906922. Pressemitteilungen.

Mickoleit, F., V. Jérôme, R. Freitag and D. Schüler. 2020. Bacterial Magnetosomes as Novel Platform for the Presentation of Immunostimulatory, Membrane-bound Ligands in Cellular Biotechnology. Advanced Biosystems, https://doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201900231.

Pfeiffer, D. and D. Schüler. 2020. Quantifying the benefit of a dedicated 'magnetoskeleton' in bacterial magnetotaxis by live-cell motility tracking and soft agar swimming assay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 86: e01976-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01976-19.


Günther, E., A. Klauß, M. Toro-Nahuelpan, D. Schüler, C. Hille and D. Faivre. 2019. The in vivo mechanics of the magnetotactic backbone as revealed by correlative FLIM-FRET and STED microscopy. Scientific Reports, doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55804-5

Rosenfeldt, S., C. Riese, F. Mickoleit, D. Schüler, and A. Schenk. 2019. Probing the nanostructure and arrangement of bacterial magnetosomes by small-angle x-ray scattering. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, doi: 10.1128/AEM.01513-19.

Jérôme V., R. Freitag, D. Schüler, and F. Mickoleit. 2019. SEAP activity measurement in reporter cell-based assays using BCIP / NBT as substrate. Analytical Biochemistry, doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.113402.

Toro-Nahuelpan, M., L. Corrales-Guerrero, T. Zwiener, M. Osorio-Valeriano, F. D. Müller, J. M. Plitzko, M. Bramkamp, M. Thanbichler, and D. Schüler. 2019. A gradient-forming MipZ protein mediating the control of cell division in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Molecular Microbiology, doi: 10.1111/mmi.14369.

Toro-Nahuelpan, M.,  G. Giacomelli, O. Raschdorf, S. Borg, J. M. Plitzko, M. Bramkamp, D. Schüler, and F. D. Müller. 2019. MamY is a membrane-bound protein that aligns magnetosomes and the motility axis of helical magnetotactic bacteria. Nature Microbiology, doi: 10.1038/s41564-019-0512-8. Hintergrundinformationen zur Publikation/Background story - Press release - Pressemitteilung. - Cover nature microbiology, Volume 4 Issue 11, November 2019.

Schüler, D. Magnetbakterien transportieren Phosphat in die Tiefe. BIOspektrum 03.19, doi: 10.1007/s12268-019-1049-3.

Uebe, R., F. Ahrens, J. Stang, K. Jaeger, L. Boettger, Chr. Schmidt, B. Matzanke, and D. Schüler. 2019. Bacterioferritin of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a heterotetraeicosameric complex composed of functionally distinct subunits but is not involved in magnetite biomineralization, mBio, doi: 10.1128/mBio.02795-18.

Amann, R. and D. Schüler. 2019. Mit modernen Methoden zu magnetischen Mikroben. BIOspektrum 01.19, doi: 10.1007/s12268-019-0993-2.

Schüler, D. and R. Uebe. 2019. Nanokristalle für die Magnetfeldorientierung - Biogenese von Magnetosomen. BIOspektrum 01.19, doi: 10.1007/s12268-019-0997-y.

Pfeiffer, D., M. Toro-Nahuelpan, M. Bramkamp, J. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2019. The polar organizing protein PopZ is fundamental for proper cell division and segregation of cellular content in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. mBio, doi: 10.1128/mBio.02716-18. Press release - Pressemitteilung.

Liu, P., A.M. Hirt, D. Schüler, R. Uebe, P. Zhu, T. Liu, and H. Zhang. 2019. Numerical unmixing of weakly and strongly magnetic minerals: examples with synthetic mixtures of magnetite and hematite. Geophysical Journal International, doi: org/10.1093/gji/ggz022.


Raschdorf, O., D. Schüler, and R. Uebe. 2018. Preparation of Bacterial Magnetosomes for Proteome Analysis. Methods Mol Biol. 1841:45-57, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8695-8_5.

Mickoleit, F., K. Altintoprak, N.L. Wenz, R. Richter, Chr. Wege, and D. Schüler. 2018. Precise assembly of genetically functionalized magnetosomes and tobacco mosaic virus particles generates a magnetic biocomposite. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b16355.

Tay, A., D. Pfeiffer, K. Rowe, A. Tannenbaum, F. Popp, R. Strangeway, D. Schüler, and D. Di Carlo. 2018. High-throughput microfluidic sorting of live magnetotactic bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, doi: 10.1128/AEM.01308-18.

Mickoleit, F. and D. Schüler. 2018. Generation of nanomagnetic biocomposites by genetic engineering of bacterial magnetosomes. Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, doi: org/10.1680/jbibn.18.00005.

Mickoleit, F., Chr.B. Borkner, M. Toro-Nahuelpan, H.M. Herold, D.S. Maier, J. Plitzko, T. Scheibel, and D. Schüler. 2018. In vivo coating of bacterial magnetic nanoparticles by magnetosome expression of spider silk-inspired peptides. Biomacromolecules, doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.7b01749.

Uebe, R., N. Keren-Khadmy, N. Zeytuni, E. Katzmann, Y. Navon, G. Davidov, R. Bitton, J.M. Plitzko, D. Schüler, and R. Zarivach. 2018. The dual role of MamB in magnetosome membrane assembly and magnetite biomineralization. Journal Molecular Microbiology, doi: 10.1111/mmi.13899.

Uebe, R, D. Schüler, C. Jogler, and S. Wiegand. 2018. Reevaluation of the Complete Genome Sequence of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 with Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing Data. Genome Announc 6:e00309-18, doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00309-18.


Raschdorf, O., F. Bonn, N. Zeytuni, R. Zarivach, D. Becher, and D. Schüler. 2017. A quantitative assessment of the membrane-integral sub-proteome of a bacterial magnetic organelle. Journal of Proteomics, doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.10.007.

Mickoleit, F. and D. Schüler. 2017. Generation of Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles with Amplified Catalytic Activities by Genetic Expression of Enzyme Arrays on Bacterial Magnetosomes. Advanced Biosystems, doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201700109.

Zahn, C., S. Keller, M. Toro-Nahuelpan, P. Dorscht, W. Gross, M. Laumann, W. Zimmermann, D. Schüler, and H. Kress. 2017. Measurement of the magnetic moment of single Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense cells by magnetic tweezers. Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-03756-z.

Heinke, D., A. Kraupner, D. Eberbeck, D. Schmidt, P. Radon, R. Uebe, D. Schüler, and A. Briel. 2017. MPS and MRI efficacy of magnetosomes from wild-type and mutant bacterial strains. International Journal on Magnetic Particle Imaging, 3(2):1-6, Article ID 1706004.

Kraupner, A., D. Eberbeck, D. Heinke, R. Uebe, D. Schüler, and A. Briel. 2017. Bacterial Magnetosomes – Nature’s powerful contribution to MPI tracer research. Nanoscale, doi: 10.1039/C7NR01530E.

Jehle, F., C.V. Tercedor, V. Reichel, M. Carillo, M. Bennet, E. Günther, R. Wirth, F. Mickoleit, R. Zarivach, D. Schüler, K. Blank, and D. Faivre. 2016. Genetically engineered organization: protein template, biological recognition sites and nanoparticles. Advanced Materials Interfaces, doi/10.1002/admi.201600285.


Toro-Nahuelpan, M., F.D. Müller, S. Klumpp, J. Plitzko, M. Bramkamp, and D. Schüler. 2016. Segregation of prokaryotic magnetosomes organelles is driven by treadmilling of a dynamic actin-like MamK filament. BMC Biology, doi: 10.1186/s12915-016-0290-1.

Barber-Zucker, S., R. Uebe, G. Davidov, Y. Navon, D. Sherf, J.H. Chill, I. Kass, R. Bitton, D. Schüler, and R. Zarivach. 2016. Disease-Homologous Mutation in the Cation Diffusion Facilitator Protein MamM Causes Single-Domain Structural Loss and Signifies Its Importance. Sci Rep., doi: 10.1038/srep31933.

Uebe, R. and D. Schüler. 2016. Magnetosome biogenesis in magnetotactic bacteria. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 14, 621–637, doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.99.

Raschdorf, O., Y. Forstner, I. Kolinko, R. Uebe, J.M. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2016. Genetic and ultrastructural analysis reveals the key players and initial steps of bacterial magnetosome membrane biogenesis. PLOS Genetics, 10:12(6):e1006101, doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006101.

Lohße, A., I. Kolinko, O. Raschdorf, R. Uebe, S. Borg, A. Brachmann, J.M. Plitzko, R. Müller, Y. Zhang, and D. Schüler. 2016. Overproduction of Magnetosomes by Genomic Amplification of Biosynthesis-Related Gene Clusters in a Magnetotactic Bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 10(82): 3032-3041, doi: 10.1128/AEM.03860-15.

Loehr, J., D. Pfeiffer, D. Schüler, and Th. M. Fischer. 2016. Magnetic Guidance of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Soft Matter, 2016, doi: 10.1039/C6SM00384B.


Taukulis, R., M. Widdrat, M. Kumari, D. Heinke, M. Rumpler, É. Tompa, R. Uebe, A. Kraupner, A. Cebers, D. Schüler, M. Pósfai, A. M. Hirt, and D. Faivre. 2015. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents - a comprehensive physical and theoretical study. Magnetohydrodynamics, 51, pp. 721–747.

Kumari, M., N. Senn, A. M. Hirt, R. Uebe, D. Schüler, É. Tompa, M. Pósfai, W. Lorenz, F. Ahrentorp, Chr. Jonasson, and Chr. Johansson. 2015. Experimental mixtures of superparamagnetic and single domain magnetite with respect to Day-Dunlop plots. Journal of Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystem, doi: 10.1002/2015GC005744.

Kolinko, S., M. Richter, F. O. Glöckner, A. Brachmann, and D. Schüler. 2015. Single-cell genomics of uncultivated deep-branching magnetotactic bacteria reveals a conserved set of magnetosome genes. Environ. Microbiol., doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12907

• see also research highlight article: Lefèvre, C. T. 2015. Genomic insights into the early-diverging magnetotactic bacteria. Environmental Microbiology, n/a–n/a, doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12989.

Davidov, G., F. D. Müller, J. Baumgartner, R. Bitton, D. Faivre, D. Schüler, and R. Zarivach. 2015. Crystal structure of the magnetobacterial protein MtxA C-terminal domain reveals a new sequence-structure relationship. Front. Mol. Biosci. 2:25, doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2015.00025.

Borg, S., D. Rothenstein, J. Bill, and D. Schüler. 2015. Generation of Multi-Shell Magnetic Hybrid Nanoparticles by Encapsulation of Genetically Engineered and Fluorescent Bacterial Magnetosomes with ZnO and SiO2. SMALL, doi: 10.1002/smll.201500028.

Shively, J. M., G. C. Cannon, S. Heinhorst, J. A. Fuerst, D. A. Bryant, J. A. Maupin-Furlow, D. Schüler, F. Pfeifer, R. Docampo, C. Dahl, J. Preiss, A. Steinbüchel, and B. A. Federici. 2015. Intracellular Structures of Prokaryotes: Inclusions, Compartments and Assemblages. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.02312-6. 

Borg, S., F. Popp, J. Hofmann, H. Leonhardt, U. Rothbauer, and D. Schüler. 2015. An intracellular nanotrap re-directs proteins and organelles in live bacteria. mBio, 6(1):e02117-14, doi: 10.1128/mBio.02117-14.


Kumari, M., M. Widdrat, E. Tompa, R. Uebe, D. Schüler, M. Pósfai, D. Faivre, and A.M. Hirt. 2014. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves. J. Appl. Phys. 116:124304, doi: 10.1063/1.4896481.

Popp, F., J. Armitage, and D. Schüler. 2014. Polarity of bacterial magnetotaxis is controlled by aerotaxis through a common sensory pathway. Nat. Comm. 5:5398, doi: 10.1038/ncomms6398. 

Kolinko, S., M. Richter, F.-O. Glöckner, A. Brachmann, and D. Schüler. 2014. Single-cell genomics reveals potential for magnetite and greigite biomineralization in an uncultivated multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote. Env. Microbiol. Rep. 6(5):524-525,  doi: 10.1111/1758-2229.12198.

Körnig, A., J. Dong, M. A. Bennet, M. Widdrat, J. Andert, F. Müller, D. Schüler, S. Klumpp, and D. Faivre. 2014. Probing the mechanical properties of magnetosome chains in living magnetotactic bacteria. Nano Lett. 14(8):4653-4659, doi: 10.1021/nl5017267.

Li, Y., M. Sabaty, S. Borg, K.T. Silva, D. Pignol, and D. Schüler. 2014. The oxygen sensor MgFnr controls magnetite biomineralization by regulation of denitrification in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. BMC Microbiology 14:153, doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-153.

Raschdorf, O., J.M. Plitzko, D. Schüler, and F.D. Müller. 2014. A tailored galK counterselection system for efficient markerless gene deletion and chromosomal tagging in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80(14):4323-4330, doi:10.1128/AEM.00588-14.

Li, Y.,  O. Raschdorf, K.T. Silva, and D. Schüler. 2014. The terminal oxidase cbb3 functions in redox control of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Bacteriol. doi:10.1128/JB.01652-14.

Lohße, A., S. Borg, O. Raschdorf, I. Kolinko, E. Tompa, M. Pósfai, D. Faivre, J. Baumgartner, and D. Schüler. 2014. Genetic dissection of the mamAB and mms6 operons reveals a gene set essential for magnetosome biogenesis in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Bacteriol., doi:10.1128/JB.01716-14.

Zeytuni, N., R. Uebe, M. Maes, G. Davidov, M. Baram, O. Raschdorf, A. Friedler, Y. Miller, D. Schüler, and R. Zarivach. 2014. Bacterial magnetosome biomineralization - a novel platform to study molecular mechanisms of human CDF-related Type-II diabetes. PLoS One 9(5): e97154.

Charilaou, M., J. Kind, I. Garcia-Rubio, D. Schüler, and A. U. Gehring. 2014. Magnetic anisotropy of non-interacting collinear nanocrystal-chains. Appl. Physics Lett. 104 (11):112406-112410.

Kolinko, I., A. Lohße, S. Borg, O. Raschdorf, C. Jogler, Q. Tu, M. Pósfai, É. Tompa, J. M. Plitzko, A. Brachmann, G. Wanner, R. Müller, Y. Zhang, and D. Schüler. 2014. Biosynthesis of magnetic nanostructures in a foreign organism by transfer of bacterial magnetosome gene clusters. Nat. Nanotech. 9:193–197.

• highlighted in: Staniland S. 2014. Nanoparticle biosynthesis: An accommodating host. Nat. Nanotech. 9:163–164.

Zeytuni, N., R. Uebe, M. Maes, G. Davidov, M. Baram, O. Raschdorf, M. Nadav-Tsubery, S. Kolusheva, R. Bitton, G. Goobes, A. Friedler, Y. Miller, D. Schüler, and R. Zarivach. 2014. Cation Diffusion Facilitators transport initiation and regulation is mediated by cation induced conformational changes of the cytoplasmic domain. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92141.

Wang, X., Q. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Li, T. Wen, T. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, J. Hu, S. Li, L. Liu, J. Liu, W. Jiang, J. Tian, Y. Li, D. Schüler, L. Wang, and J. Li. 2014. Complete genome sequence of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. Genome Announc. 2(2):e00171-14.

Borg, S., J. Hofmann, A. Pollithy, C. Lang, and D. Schüler. 2014. New vectors for chromosomal integration enable high-level constitutive or inducible magnetosome expression of fusion proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80(8): 2609-2616.

Müller, F. D., O. Raschdorf, H. Nudelman, M. Messerer, E. Katzmann, J. M. Plitzko, R. Zarivach, and D. Schüler. 2014. The FtsZ-like protein FtsZm of M. gryphiswaldense likely interacts with its generic FtsZ homolog and is required for biomineralization under nitrate deprivation. J. Bacteriol. 196(3):650-659.


Katzmann, E., M. Eibauer, W. Lin, Y. Pan, J. M. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2013. Analysis of magnetosome chains in magnetotactic bacteria by magnetic measurements and automated image analysis of electron micrographs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(24):7755-7762.

Roda, A., L. Cevenini, S. Borg, E. Michelini, M. M. Calabretta, and D. Schüler. 2013. Bioengineered bioluminescent magnetotactic bacteria as powerful tool for chip-based whole-cell biosensors. Lab Chip. 13(24):4881-4889.

Li, Y., S. Bali, S. Borg, E. Katzmann, S. J. Ferguson, and D. Schüler. 2013. Cytochrome cd1nitrite reductase NirS is involved in anaerobic magnetite biomineralisation in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and requires NirN for proper d1 heme assembly. J. Bacteriol. 195(18):4297-4309.

Raschdorf, O., F. D. Müller, M. Pósfai, J. M. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2013. The magnetosome proteins MamX, MamZ, and MamH are involved in redox control of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Mol. Microbiol. 89(5):872-886.

Bazylinski, D. A., C. T. Lefèvre, and D. Schüler. 2013. Magnetotactic bacteria. p. 453-494. In M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K.-H. Schleifer and E. Stackebrandt (ed.), The Prokaryotes, 4th ed., vol. 5: Proteobacteria: Alpha and Beta Subclasses. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Lefèvre, C. T., D. Trubitsyn, F. Abreu, S. Kolinko, C. Jogler, L. G. P. de Almeida, A. T. R. de Vasconcelos, M. Kube, R. Reinhardt, U. Lins, D. Pignol, D. Schüler, D. A. Bazylinski, and N. Ginet. 2013. Comparative genomic analysis of magnetotactic bacteria from the Deltaproteobacteria provides new insights into magnetite and greigite magnetosome genes required for magnetotaxis. Environ. Microbiol. 15(10):2712-2735.

Lefèvre, C. T., D. Trubityn, F. Abreu, S. Kolinko, L. G. P. de Almeida, A. T. R. de Vasconcelos, U. Lins, D. Schüler, N. Ginet, D. Pignol, and D. A. Bazylinski. 2013. Monophyletic origin of magnetotaxis and the first magnetosomes. Environ. Microbiol. 15(8):2267-2274.

Kolinko, S., G. Wanner, E. Katzmann, F. Kiemer, B. Fuchs, and D. Schüler. 2013. Clone libraries and single cell genome amplification reveal extended diversity of uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria from marine and freshwater environments. Environ. Microbiol. 15(5):1290-1301.


Lefèvre, C. T., Schmidt, M. L., Viloria, N., Trubitsyn, D., Schüler, and D. A., Bazylinski. 2012. Insight into the Evolution of Magnetotaxis in Magnetospirillum Based on mam Gene Phylogenies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(20):7238-7248.

Li, Y., E. Katzmann, S. Borg, and D. Schüler. 2012. The periplasmic nitrate reductase Nap is required for anaerobic growth and involved in redox control of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Bacteriol. 194(18):4847-4856.

Kolinko, S., C. Jogler, E. Katzmann, G. Wanner, J. Peplies, and D. Schüler. 2012. Single-cell analysis reveals a novel uncultivated magnetotactic bacterium within the candidate division OP3. Environ. Microbiol. 14(7):1709-1721.

Uebe R., V. Henn, and D. Schüler. 2012. The MagA protein of magnetospirilla is not involved in bacterial magnetite biomineralization. J. Bacteriol. 194(5):1018-1023.


Katzmann, E., F. D. Müller, C. Lang, M. Messerer, M. Winklhofer, J. M. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2011. Magnetosome chains are recruited to cellular division sites and split by asymmetric septation. Mol. Microbiol. 82(6):1316-1329.

• highlighted in: Lin W., and Y. Pan. 2011. Snapping magnetosome chains by asymmetric cell division in magnetotactic bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 82(6):1301-1304.

• see also research highlight article: Splitting a bacterial magnet. 2011. Nature 480:416-417.

• see also nature news online: How bacteria break a magnet. 2011. Nature News: December.

Uebe, R., K. Junge, V. Henn, G. Poxleitner, E. Katzmann, J. M. Plitzko, R. Zarivach, T. Kasama, G. Wanner, M. Pósfai, L. Böttger, B. Matzanke, and D. Schüler. 2011. The cation diffusion facilitator proteins MamB and MamM of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense have distinct and complex functions, and are involved in magnetite biomineralization and magnetosome membrane assembly. Mol. Microbiol. 82(4):818-835.

• see also microcommentary: Nies D. H. 2011. How iron is transported into magnetosomes. Mol. Microbiol. 82(4):792-796.

Lohße, A., S. Ullrich, E. Katzmann, S. Borg, G. Wanner, M. Richter, B. Voigt, T. Schweder, and D. Schüler. 2011. Functional analysis of the magnetosome island in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense: The mamAB operon is sufficient for magnetite biomineralization. PLoS ONE 6(10):e25561.

Büttner, M., P. Weber, C. Lang, M. Röder, D. Schüler, P. Görnert, and P. Seidel. 2011. Examination of magnetite nanoparticles utilising the temperature dependent magnetorelaxometry. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 323(9):1179-1184.

Wei, J. D., I. Knittel, C. Lang, D. Schüler, and U. Hartmann. 2011. Magnetic properties of single biogenic magnetite nanoparticles. J. Nanopart. Res. 13(8):3345-3352.

Kolinko, I., C. Jogler, E. Katzmann, and D. Schüler. 2011. Frequent mutations within the genomic magnetosome island of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense are mediated by RecA. J. Bacteriol. 193(19):5328–5334.

Pollithy, A., T. Romer, C. Lang, F. D. Müller, J. Helma, H. Leonhardt, U. Rothbauer, and D. Schüler. 2011. Magnetosome expression of functional camelid antibody fragments (nanobodies) in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(17):6165-6171.

Jogler, C., G. Wanner, S. Kolinko, M. Niebler, R. Amann, N. Petersen, M. Kube, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2011. Conservation of proteobacterial magnetosome genes and structures in an uncultivated member of the deep-branching Nitrospira phylum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(3):1134-1139.

Lin, W., C. Jogler, D. Schüler, and Y. Pan. 2011. Metagenomic analysis reveals unexpected subgenomic diversity of magnetotactic bacteria within the phylum Nitrospirae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(1):323-326.


Uebe R., B. Voigt, T. Schweder, D. Albrecht, E. Katzmann, C. Lang, L. Böttger, B. Matzanke, and D. Schüler. 2010. Deletion of a fur-like gene affects iron homeostasis and magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Bacteriol. 192(16):4192-4204.

Katzmann E., A. Scheffel, M. Gruska, J. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2010. Loss of the actin-like protein MamK has pleiotropic effects on magnetosome formation and chain assembly in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Mol. Microbiol. 77(1):208-224.

Jogler C., M. Niebler, W. Lin, M. Kube, G. Wanner, S. Kolinko, P. Stief, A. Beck, D. DeBeer, N. Petersen, Y. Pan, R. Amann, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2010. Cultivation-independent characterization of "Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum"; via ultrastructural, geochemical, ecological and metagenomic methods. Environ. Microbiol. 12(9):2466–2478.

Ullrich, S., and D. Schüler. 2010. A Cre-lox based method for generation of large deletions within the genomic magnetosome island of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76(8):2439-2444.


Schübbe, S., T. J. Williams, G. Xie, H. E. Kiss, T. S. Brettin, D. Martinez, C. A. Ross, D. Schüler, K. H. Nealson, and D. A. Bazylinski. 2009. Complete genome sequence of the chemolithoautotrophic marine magnetotactic coccus strain MC-1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(14):4835-4852.

Lin, W., J. Li, D. Schüler, C. Jogler, and Y. Pan. 2009. Diversity analysis of magnetotactic bacteria in lake Miyun, northern China, by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32(5):342-350.

Shively, J., G. Cannon, S. Heinhorst, J. Fuerst, D. Bryant, E. Gantt, J. Maupin-Furlow, D. Schüler, F. Pfeifer, R. Docampo, J. Preiss, A. Steinbüchel, and B. A. Federici. 2009. Intracellular structures of prokaryotes: Inclusions, compartments and assemblages, p. 404-424. In M. Schaechter (ed.), Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Elsevier, Oxford.

Behrens, S., H. Bönnemann, N. Matoussevitch, H. Modrow, V. Kempter, W. Riehemann, A. Widenmann, S. Odenbach, S. Will, D. Eberbeck, R. Hergt, R. Müller, K. Landfester, A. Schmidt, D. Schüler, and R. Hempelmann. 2009. Synthesis and characterization of ferrofluids, p. 1-82. In S. Odenbach (ed.), Colloidal Magnetic fluids: Basics, Development and application of ferrofluids. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Ohuchi, S., and D. Schüler. 2009. In vivo display of a multisubunit enzyme complex on biogenic magnetic nanoparticles. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(24):7734-7738.

Jogler, C., M. Kube, S. Schübbe, S. Ullrich, H. Teeling, D. A. Bazylinski, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2009. Comparative analysis of magnetosome gene clusters in magnetotactic bacteria provides further evidence for horizontal gene transfer. Environ. Microbiol. 11(5):1267-1277.

Wenter, R., G. Wanner, D. Schüler, and J. Overmann. 2009. Ultrastructure, phylogeny and tactic behaviour of a novel type of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote from North Sea sediments. Environ. Microbiol. 11(6):1493-1505.

Schwarz, S., F. Fernandes, L. Sanroman, M. Hodenius, C. Lang, U. Himmelreich, G. Fama, T. Schmitz-Rode, D. Schüler, M. Hoehn, M. Zenke, and T. Hieronymus. 2009. Synthetic and biogenic magnetite nanoparticles for tracking of stem cells and dendritic cells. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321(10):1533-1538.

Jogler, C., W. Lin, A. Meyerdierks, M. Kube, E. Katzmann, C. Flies, R. Amann, Y. Pan, R. Reinhard, and D. Schüler. 2009. Towards cloning the magnetotactic metagenome: Identification of magnetosome island gene clusters in uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria from different aquatic sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(12):3972-3979.

Jogler, C., and D. Schüler. 2009. Genetics, genomics, and cell biology of magnetosome formation in magnetotactic bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 63:501-521.

Bazylinski, D. A., and D. Schüler. 2009. Biomineralization and assembly of the bacterial magnetosome chain. Microbe 4:124-130.

Lang, C., A. Pollithy, and D. Schüler. 2009. Identification of promoters for efficient gene expression in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Env. Microbiool. 75(12):4206-4210.


Schüler, D. 2008. Genetics and cell biology of magnetosome formation in magnetotactic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 32(4):654-672.

Scheffel, A., A. Gärdes, K. Grünberg, G. Wanner, and D. Schüler. 2008. The major magnetosome proteins MamGFDC are not essential for magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, but regulate the size of magnetosome crystals J. Bacteriol. 190(1):377-386.

Lang, C., and D. Schüler. 2008. Expression of green fluorescent protein fused to magnetosome proteins in microaerophilic magnetotactic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(15):4944-4953.

Faivre, D., and D. Schüler. 2008. Magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes. Chemical. Rev. 108(11):4875-4898.

Faivre, D., N. Menguy, M. Posfai, and D. Schüler. 2008. Environmental parameters affect the physical properties of fast-growing magnetosomes. Am. Mineral. 93:463-469.


Wacker, R., B. Ceyhan, P. Alhorn, D. Schüler, C. Lang, and C. P. Niemeyer. 2007. Magneto immuno-PCR: A novel immunoassay based on biogenic magnetosome nanoparticles. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 357(2):391-396.

Scheffel, A., and D. Schüler. 2007. The acidic repetitive domain of the Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MamJ protein displays hypervariability but is not required for magnetosome chain assembly. J. Bacteriol. 189(17):6437-6446.

Schüler, D., and D. A. Bazylinski. 2007. Techniques for studying uncultured and cultured magnetotactic bacteria, p. 1129-1138. In C. J. Hurst, R. L. Crawford, J. L. Garland, D. A. Lipson, A. L. Mills, and L. D. Stetzenbach (ed.), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2th edition ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

Jogler, C., and D. Schüler. 2007. Genetic and biochemical analysis of magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, p. 145-162. In E. Baeuerlein (ed.), Handbook of Biomineralization, vol. Biological aspects and structure formation. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Richter, M., M. Kube, D. A. Bazylinski, T. Lombardot, F. O. Glöckner, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2007. Comparative genome analysis of four magnetotactic bacteria reveals a complex set of group-specific genes implicated in magnetosome biomineralization and function. J. Bacteriol. 189(13):4899-4910.

Lisy, M. R., A. Hartung, C. Lang, D. Schüler, W. Richter, J. R. Reichenbach, W. A. Kaiser, and I. Hilger. 2007. Fluoresecent bacterial magnetic nanoparticles as bimodal contrast agents. Invest. Radiol. 42(4):235-241.

Lang, C., D. Schüler, and D. Faivre. 2007. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for bio- and nanotechnology: Genetic engineering and biomimetics of bacterial magnetosomes. Macromol. Biosci. 7(2):144-151.

Hartung, A., R. L. Lisy, K. H. Herrmann, I. Hilger, D. Schüler, C. Lang, M. E. Bellemann, W. A. Kaiser, and J. R. Reichenbach. 2007. Labeling macrophages using bacterial magnetosomes and their characterization by magnetic resonance imaging. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 311(1):454- 459.

Faivre, D., L. Böttger, B. Matzanke, and D. Schüler. 2007. Intracellular magnetite biomineralization in bacteria proceeds via a distinct pathway involving membrane-bound ferritin and ferrous iron species. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46(44):8647-8652.

Coker, V. S., C. I. Pearce, C. Lang, G. van der Laan, R. A. Pattrick, N. D. Telling, D. Schüler, and J. R. Lloyd. 2007. Cation site occupancy of biogenic, chemical and natural magnetites determined by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Eur. J. Mineral. 19(5):707-716.


Würdemann, C., J. Peplies, S. Schübbe, A. Ellrott, D. Schüler, and F. O. Glöckner. 2006. Evaluation of gene expression analysis using RNA-targeted partial genome arrays. System. Appl. Microbiol. 29(5):349-357.

Schüler, D. 2006. Magnetoreception and magnetosomes in bacteria. (ed.), Microbiology Monographs, vol. 3. Springer, Heidelberg.

Schübbe, S., C. Würdemann, U. Heyen, C. Wawer, J. Peplies, F. O. Glöckner, and D. Schüler. 2006. Transcriptional organization and regulation of magnetosome operons in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72(9):757-765.

Scheffel, A., and D. Schüler. 2006. Magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria, p. 167-192. In J. M. Shively (ed.), Prokaryotic inclusions, compartments and assemblages, vol. 1. Springer, Heidelberg.

Scheffel, A., M. Gruska, D. Faivre, A. Linaroudis, P. L. Graumann, J. M. Plitzko, and D. Schüler. 2006. An acidic protein aligns magnetosomes along a filamentous structure in magnetotactic bacteria. Nature 440:110-114.

Scheffel, A., and D. Schüler. 2006. Magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria, p. 167-192. In J. M. Shively (ed.), Prokaryotic inclusions, compartments and assemblages, vol. 1. Springer, Heidelberg.

Lang, C., and D. Schüler. 2006. Biogenic nanoparticles: production, characterization, and application of bacterial magnetosomes. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18(38):2815-2828.

Jogler, C., and D. Schüler. 2006. Genetic analysis of magnetosome biomineralization, p. 133-162. In D. Schüler (ed.), Magnetoreception and magnetosomes in bacteria, vol. 3. Springer, Heidelberg.

Amann, R., J. Peplies, and D. Schüler. 2006. Diversity and Taxonomy of Magnetotactic Bacteria, p. In D. Schüler (ed.), Magnetoreception and magnetosomes in bacteria, vol. 3. Springer, Heidelberg.

Posfai, M., B. Arato, D. Schüler, C. Flies, D. A. Bazylinski, B. M. Moskowitz, and R. B. Frankel. 2006. Properties of intracellular magnetite crystals produced by Desulfovibrio magneticus RS-1. Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 249:444-455.

Ceyhan, B., P. Alhorn, C. Lang, D. Schüler, and C. M. Niemeyer. 2006. Semi-Synthetic biogenic magnetosome nanoparticles for the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. Small 2(11):1251-1255.


Ullrich, S., M. Kube, S. Schübbe, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2005. A hypervariable 130 kb genomic region of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense comprises a magnetosome island, which undergoes frequent rearrangements during stationary growth. J. Bacteriol. 187(21):7176-7184.

Schultheiss, D., R. Handrick, D. Jendrossek, M. Hanzlik, and D. Schüler. 2005. The presumptive magnetosome protein Mms16 is a PHB-granule bound protein (phasin) in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Bacteriol. 187(7):2416-2425.

Hergt, R., R. Hiergeist, M. Zeisberger, D. Schüler, U. Heyen, I. Hilger, and W. A. Kaiser. 2005. Magnetic properties of bacterial magnetosomes as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 293(1):80-86.

Flies, C., J. Peplies, and D. Schüler. 2005. A combined approach for the characterization of uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria from various aquatic environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(5):2723-2731.

Flies, C., H. Jonkers, D. deBeer, K. Bosselmann, M. Böttcher, and D. Schüler. 2005. Diversity and vertical distribution of magnetotactic bacteria along chemical gradients in freshwater microcosms. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 52(2):185-195.

Eberbeck, D., V. Janke, S. Hartwig, U. Heyen, D. Schüler, M. Albrecht, and L. Trahms. 2005. Blocking of magnetic moments of magnetosomes measured by magnetorelaxometry and direct observation by magnetic force microscopy. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289:70-73.

Arato, B., Z. Szanyi, C. Flies, D. Schüler, R. B. Frankel, P. R. Buseck, and M. Posfai. 2005. Crystal-size and shape distributions of magnetite from uncultured magnetotactic bacteria as a potential biomarker. Am. Mineral. 90:1233-1241.

Albrecht, M., V. Janke, S. Sievers, U. Siegner, D. Schüler, and U. Heyen. 2005. Scanning force microscopy study of biogenic nanoparticles for medical applications. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 290-291(1):269-271.

Schüler, D., and K. H. Schleifer. 2005. The genus Magnetospirillum, p. 28-31. In D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, and J. T. Staley (ed.), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, vol. 2. Springer, New York.

Schüler, D. 2005. Nanokristalle für die Magnetfeldorientierung: Biomineralisation von Magnetosomen in Bakterien. Biospektrum 2005(3):291-294.

Lang, C., and D. Schüler. 2005. Biomineralization of magnetosomes in bacteria: Nanoparticles with potential applications, p. 107-124. In B. Rehm (ed.), Microbial Bionanotechnology: Biological self-assembly systems and biopolymer-based nanostructures. Horizon Scientific Press.


Schultheiss, D., M. Kube, and D. Schüler. 2004. Inactivation of the flagellin gene flaA in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense results in non-magnetotactic mutants lacking flagellar filaments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70(6):3624-3631.

Hoell, A., A. Wiedenmann, U. Heyen, and D. Schüler. 2004. Nanostructure and field-induced arrangement of magnetosomes studied by SANSPOL. Physica B 350:309-313.

Handrick, R., S. Reinhardt, D. Schultheiss, T. Reichart, D. Schüler, V. Jendrossek, and D. Jendrossek. 2004. Unraveling the function of the Rhodospirillum rubrum activator of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation: the activator is a PHB-granule-bound protein (phasin). J. Bacteriol. 186(8):2466-75.

Grünberg, K., E. C. Müller, A. Otto, R. Reszka, D. Linder, M. Kube, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2004. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl. Eviron. Microbiol. 70(2):1040-1050.

Schüler, D. 2004. Molecular analysis of a subcellular compartment: The magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Arch. Microbiol. 181(1):1-7.

Schüler, D. 2004. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, p. 61-74. In E. Baeuerlein (ed.), Biomineralization, 2th ed. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Schüler, D. 2004. Making magnets by bacteria: The biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles., p. 11-15. In I. Nedkov and P. Tailhades (ed.), Lectures on Nanoscale magnetic materials. Heron Press Ltd.

Rehm, B., and D. Schüler. 2004. Klein–Kleiner–Am Kleinsten: Nanobiotechnologie, eine Schlüsseltechnologie des 21. Jahrhunderts, p. 56-61, Biotechnologie 2020. DECHEMA, Frankfurt.

Amann, R., R. Rossello-Mora, C. Flies, and D. Schüler. 2004. Phylogeny and in situ identification of magnetotactic bacteria, p. 61-74. In E. Baeuerlein (ed.), Biomineralization, 2th ed. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.


Schultheiss, D., and D. Schüler. 2003. Development of a genetic system for Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Arch. Microbiol. 179(2):89-94.

Schübbe, S., M. Kube, A. Scheffel, C. Wawer, U. Heyen, A. Meyerdierks, M. Madkour, F. Mayer, R. Reinhardt, and D. Schüler. 2003. Characterization of a spontaneous nonmagnetic mutant of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense reveals a large deletion comprising a putative magnetosome island. J. Bacteriol. 185(19):5779-5790.

Heyen, U., and D. Schüler. 2003. Growth and magnetosome formation by microaerophilic Magnetospirillum strains in an oxygen-controlled fermentor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 61:536-544.

Herborn, C. U., N. Papanikolaou, R. Reszka, K. Grünberg, D. Schüler, and J. F. Debatin. 2003. Magnetosomes as biological model for iron binding: relaxivity determination with MRI. Rofo Fortschr. Geb. Rontgenstr. Neuen Bildgeb. Verfahr. 175(6):830-834.


Schüler, D. 2002. The biomineralization of magnetosomes in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Int. Microbiol. 5(4):209-214.

Grünberg, K., C. Wawer, B. M. Tebo, and D. Schüler. 2001. A large gene cluster encoding several magnetosome proteins is conserved in different species of magnetotactic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(10):4573-4582.

Bazylinski, D. A., A. J. Dean, D. Schüler, E. J. P. Phillips, and D. R. Lovley. 2000. N2-dependent growth and nitrogenase activity in the metal-metabolizing bacteria, Geobacter and Magnetospirillum species. Environ. Microbiol. 2(3):266-273.

Schüler, D. 2000. Characterization of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, p. 109-118. In E. Baeuerlein (ed.), Biomineralization. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Schüler, D. 2000. Die Biomineralisation von Nanokristallen in magnetotaktischen Bakterien. Biospektrum 6:445-449.

Schüler, D. 2000. Magnetosome formation in magnetotactic bacteria. In D. H. Bartlett (ed.), Molecular Marine Microbiology. Horizon Scientific Press.

Amann, R., R. Rossello-Mora, and D. Schüler. 2000. Phylogeny and in situ identification of magnetotactic bacteria, p. 47-60. In E. Baeuerlein (ed.), Biomineralization. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Schüler, D., and R. B. Frankel. 1999. Bacterial magnetosomes: Microbiology, biomineralization and biotechnological applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 52(4):464-473.

Schüler, D., S. Spring, and D. A. Bazylinski. 1999. Improved technique for the isolation of magnetotactic spirilla from a freshwater sediment and their phylogenetic characterization. System. Appl. Microbiol. 22(3):466-471.

Schüler, D. 1999. Formation of magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1(1):79-86.

Schüler, D., and E. Baeuerlein. 1998. Dynamics of iron uptake and Fe3O4 biomineralization during aerobic and microaerobic growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Bacteriol. 180(1):159-162.

Frankel, R. B., D. A. Bazylinski, and D. Schüler. 1998. Biomineralization of magnetic iron minerals in bacteria. Supramol. Sci. 5:383-390.

Schüler, D., and E. Baeuerlein. 1997. Iron transport and magnetite crystal formation of the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Phys. IV 7(1):647-650.

Schüler, D., and E. Baeuerlein. 1997. The biomineralization of magnetite in magnetic bacteria, p. 24-36. In T. A. (ed.), Bioinorganic chemistry: Transition metals in biology and coordination chemistry/Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim; New York; Chichester; Brisbane; Singapore; Toronto.

Schüler, D., and E. Baeuerlein. 1997. Iron uptake and magnetite crystal formation of the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, p. 159-185. In G. Winkelmann and C. Carrano (ed.), Transition metals in microbial metabolism. Harwood Academic Publ., Amsterdam.

Schüler, D., and E. Baeuerlein. 1996. Iron-limited growth and kinetics of iron uptake in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Arch. Microbiol. 166(5):301-307.

Schüler, D., R. Uhl, and E. Baeuerlein. 1995. A simple light-scattering method to assay magnetism in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 132:139-145.

Baeuerlein, E., and D. Schüler. 1995. Biomineralisation: Iron transport and magnetite crystal formation in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. J. Inorg. Biochem. 59(2):107.

Spring, S., R. Amann, W. Ludwig, K.-H. Schleifer, D. Schüler, K. Poralla, and N. Petersen. 1994. Phylogenetic analysis of uncultured magnetotactic bacteria from the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 17(4):501-508.

Harasko, G., H. Pfützner, E. Rapp, K. Futschik, and D. Schüler. 1993. Determination of the concentration of magnetotactic bacteria by means of susceptibility measurements. Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 32:252-260.

Schüler, D., and M. Köhler. 1992. The isolation of a new magnetic spirillum. Zentralbl. Mikrobiol. 147:150-151.

Schleifer, K., D. Schüler, S. Spring, M. Weizenegger, R. Amann, W. Ludwig, and M. Köhler. 1991. The genus Magnetospirillum gen. nov., description of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense sp. nov. and transfer of Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14(4):379-385.


Scheffel, A., and D. Schüler. 2008. Herstellung von bakteriellen magnetischen Nanopartikelen definierter Größe durch kontrollierte Expression der Magnetosomenproteine MamGFDC. Europäisches Patent EP 07 019 965.8 (pending).

Bäuerlein, E., D. Schüler, R. Reszka, and S. Päuser. 2001. Specific magnetosomes, method for the production and use thereof. US patent 6,251,365 B1.

Verantwortlich für die Redaktion: Gundula Rath

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